In professional wrestling, kayfabe /ˈkfb/ is the portrayal of staged events within the industry as "real" or "true," specifically the portrayal of competition, rivalries, and relationships between participants as being genuine and not of a staged or pre-determined nature of any kind. Kayfabe has also evolved to become a code word of sorts for maintaining this "reality" within the direct or indirect presence of the general public.[1] Though the staged nature of professional wrestling had been a frequent topic of conversation among the media and public since at least the latter years of the early 20th century,[2] the professional wrestling industry did not formally acknowledge this until changes in the business during the 1980s professional wrestling boom prompted attitudes within the business to change. In 1989, World Wrestling Federation owner Vince McMahon testified before the New Jersey state senate that wrestling was staged. Long sanctioned by New Jersey and other states as an athletic exhibition for regulation and taxation purposes, McMahon sought to eliminate oversight, and hence taxation, on the WWF's house shows and pay-per-view events held within the state.[3]

Kayfabe is often seen as the suspension of disbelief that is used to create the non-wrestling aspects of promotions, such as feuds, angles, and gimmicks, in a manner similar to other forms of fictional entertainment. In relative terms, a wrestler breaking kayfabe during a show would be likened to breaking character by an actor on-camera. Also, since wrestling is performed in front of a live audience, whose interaction with the show is crucial to its success, kayfabe can be compared to the fourth wall in acting, since there is hardly any conventional fourth wall to begin with.

In years past, one tool that promoters and wrestlers had in preserving kayfabe was in their ability to attract a loyal paying audience in spite of limited or nearly nonexistent exposure. Professional wrestling had long been shunned by mainstream media due to lingering doubts over its legitimacy, and its presentation on television was largely limited to self-produced programming, not unlike infomercials of the present day. Scrutiny was largely limited to certain U.S. states with activist athletic commissioners, whose influence finally waned by the late 20th century, with mixed martial arts events taking the attention boxing and wrestling once held throughout the United States. It was commonplace for wrestlers to adhere to kayfabe in public, even when outside the ring and off-camera, in order to preserve the illusion that the competition in pro wrestling was not staged. This was due in no small part to feuds between wrestlers sometimes lasting for years, and which could be utterly destroyed in seconds if they were shown associating as friends in public, and thus potentially affect ticket revenue.

With the advent of the Internet wrestling community, as well as the sports entertainment movement, the pro wrestling industry has become less concerned with protecting so-called backstage secrets and typically maintains kayfabe only during performances. However, kayfabe is occasionally broken, including during performances, in order to achieve a number of goals, among them advancing the storylines, explaining prolonged absences (often due to legitimate injury), paying tribute to other wrestlers and sometimes for comedic effect or that of driving insider humor.

Faces and heels

The characters assumed by wrestlers can be distinguished into two alignments: faces and heels.

Faces, short for babyfaces, are hero-type characters whose personalities are crafted to elicit the support of the audience through traits such as humility, a hard working nature, determination and reciprocal love of the crowd. Faces usually win their matches on the basis of their technical skills and are sometimes portrayed as underdogs to enhance the story.

Heels are villainous or antagonistic characters, whose personalities are crafted to elicit a negative response from the audience. They often embrace traditionally negative traits such as narcissism, egomania, unprompted rage, sadism and general bitterness. Though not as prevalent today, xenophobic ethnic and racial stereotypes, in particular those inspired by the Axis powers of World War II, were commonly utilized in North American wrestling as heel-defining traits. Heels typically inspire boos from the audience and often employ underhanded tactics, such as cheating and exploiting technicalities, in their fighting strategies, or use overly aggressive styles to cause excess pain or injury to their opponents.

A wrestler may change from face to heel (or vice versa) in an event known as a turn, or gradually transition from one to the other over the course of a long storyline.

Matches are usually organized between a heel and a face, but the distinction between the two types may be blurred as a given character's storyline reaches a peak or becomes more complicated. Indeed, in recent years, several wrestlers became characters that were neither faces nor heels, but somewhere in between—or alternating between both—earning them the term "'tweener."

Perhaps the best-known "'tweener" was the WWE's "Stone Cold" Steve Austin. His personality was heel-ish, but he became a WWF (now WWE) fan favorite for his kayfabe feud with his boss, WWF chairman and CEO Vince McMahon's in-ring alter-ego, the evil billionaire owner, "Mr. McMahon." Another great example would be fellow WWF attitude era star The Rock, who would insult interviewers, interrupt other superstars, and disobey WWE orders, all while being one of the top Fan Favorites within the late 1990s and early 2000s.


I remember the guy who would bring our jackets back to the dressing room. Every time he did, someone would yell "Kayfabe."...Then one night, the guy decided to stand up for himself and told the whole dressing room: "I don't mind the yelling, but I want to let you know that my name is not Kayfabe. It's Mark."...What he didn't know is that wrestlers called people outside of the business "marks" — that's why we were yelling kayfabe in the first place.
Pat Patterson, describing his interaction with a ring attendant in the Pacific Northwest Wrestling territory during the early 1960s[4]


Many storylines make use of kayfabe romantic relationships between two performers. Very often, both participants have other real-life relationships, and the "relationship" between the two is simply a storyline. However, more than once, kayfabe romantic relationships have resulted either from a real-life relationship, such as between Matt Hardy and Lita, or ultimately developed into a real-life marriage (e.g., Triple H and Stephanie McMahon, who married in 2003, more than a year after their kayfabe marriage ended).[5] During the early 21st century, this "kayfabe" practice has given way to reality in the WWE, largely due to the creation of the reality television program Total Divas where four "legit" (legally binding) weddings have occurred: Natalya and Tyson Kidd, Brie Bella and Daniel Bryan, Naomi and Jimmy Uso, and Eva Marie and her fiancé Jonathan.

Tag teams of wrestlers, who may or may not look alike, are often presented as relatives, though they are not actually related. Examples include The Brothers of Destruction (The Undertaker and Kane), The Holly Cousins (Hardcore Holly, Crash Holly, and Molly Holly) and The Dudley Brothers. "Brother" tag teams were commonly utilized in years past as a means to develop young talent, by pairing them with a veteran wrestler and giving the younger wrestler a "rub" by virtue of the association. In the case of the Andersons, this was used multiple times over, first with Gene Anderson, followed by Lars Anderson, Ole Anderson, then years later with Arn Anderson. In this specific instance, this also greatly enhanced the shelf life and future legacy of the tag team and its associated gimmick ("The Minnesota Wrecking Crew"). Arn Anderson, as he gained experience as a wrestler, was introduced to Georgia Championship Wrestling audiences as Ole Anderson's nephew (and later cousin to Ric Flair). Although Minnesota roots were central to the Anderson gimmick, Arn clearly spoke with a southern accent. He had also previously appeared on the same program as a television jobber, working under his real name.


Sometimes wrestlers will "sell" a kayfabe injury by not appearing at the following show, in order to demonstrate the severity of what happened to them the week before. In the years when information on the happenings of the business was limited, this was a common tactic for promoters when a wrestler was scheduled to tour Japan, or in more limited circumstances was dealing with a family emergency.

In other instances, if a wrestler (typically a babyface) needs surgery, a storyline will sometimes develop in which a heel will commit a kayfabe, on-screen act to the face wrestler to "injure" the wrestler, in order to give the impression that it was the heel's action that caused the face to need surgery. In these instances, the heel will continually flaunt the notion of taking their opponent out of action, in order to keep the storyline fresh in fans' minds until the face is able to return and "settle the score".

Other times, a real injury is sometimes used later on as a storyline. One way is for the injured to come back and blame someone else for injuring them, even when the feud was not initially planned out at all, to give a sort of closure to the injury time out.

Lastly, when a major injury sidelines a wrestler in such a way that none of the above can be done (such as Brock Lesnar's neck injury and concussion in 2003), the company will plan a sort of return angle that can be used to celebrate a wrestler's return to action. This has been made especially popular in the WWE with the use of their "Desire" video vignettes of wrestlers who returned from a major injury, such as Triple H in 2001 or Kurt Angle, in order to show that the wrestler was able to overcome a major injury that could have ended their career indefinitely (which, in many cases, could truly, non-kayfabe, be career-threatening or worse). In many cases this is done for faces, though these also give a promotion a reason to turn a heel into a face (as in Triple H's and Kurt Angle's cases) if what the wrestler brought to the company was sorely missed during their absence. These returns are usually given a particular date in order to increase viewership and ticket sales, as the public are promised a star they have wanted to return. Even more often, a wrestler's return will not even be advertised. It will just suddenly happen in order to get a huge pop out of the crowd. For example, Edge returned at the 2010 Royal Rumble, where he was entrant 29, despite no prior public knowledge that he was even able to return to action. Marty Wright, known as The Boogeyman, came to the 2015 Royal Rumble in his first WWE appearance in almost 5 years. And John Cena, who had suffered an arm injury, entered the 2008 Royal Rumble at no. 30, months before he was expected to return, and won the match.

Contracts, employment status and suspensions

Through kayfabe, wrestlers often quit, get fired, or lose challenges with their job at stake (e.g., a "loser leaves town match") only to return at a future time. These types of matches are also used when a wrestler's contract is up or to give them some time off to recover from a legitimate injury (before expanding to national television, wrestlers often did leave town as they were booked on the next city or territory on the circuit, similar to the carnival days).

However, such "departures" may also be used to advance a feud between two wrestlers. A classic example is the "masked man", where the wrestler (usually a face) who has supposedly lost his job makes appearances at subsequent events while wearing a mask, and then interferes in his heel opponent's matches; eventually, the masked wrestler's identity is exposed by his foe and the feud intensifies. This storyline was used for the Dusty Rhodes/Kevin Sullivan feud during the 1980s and also for the feud between Vince McMahon and Hulk Hogan in 2003. Junkyard Dog was pinned in an October 1982 televised match (due to interference from Jim Duggan, dressed in a gorilla costume) where the loser of the fall left Mid-South Wrestling for ninety days. Soon after, JYD reappeared as the masked Stagger Lee. In an unusual twist, Junkyard Dog later appeared on television in street clothes alongside Stagger Lee, acting as his "spokesman". This Stagger Lee was soon unmasked as Porkchop Cash, but it was otherwise Junkyard Dog under the mask during the course of this angle.

Some more recent examples include William Regal losing a Loser Gets Fired match against Mr. Kennedy on the May 19, 2008 episode of Raw (Regal was actually suspended for sixty days due to violation of the WWE Wellness Policy), The Undertaker losing a Tables, Ladders, and Chairs match to Edge at WWE One Night Stand later that year, (where the winner would get the vacant WWE World Heavyweight Championship) and At Survivor Series, where John Cena officiated a match for the WWE Championship between Wade Barrett and Randy Orton. As a part of a pre-match stipulation, if Barrett did not win the championship, Cena would be fired from the WWE. Orton defeated Barrett to retain the title, thus "ending" Cena's career in the WWE.[6] The following day on Raw, Cena gave a farewell speech, before costing Wade Barrett the WWE Championship by interfering in his rematch with Randy Orton.[7] A week later, Cena invaded Raw first as a spectator but then attacked members of Nexus, explaining that he would still take down Nexus one by one, despite not having a job in WWE anymore. Cena was eventually "rehired" by Wade Barrett a few weeks later in an attempt to prevent a mutiny by members of the Nexus.

The "you're fired" gimmick has also successfully been used to repackage a wrestler with a new gimmick.

On the August 22, 2005 edition of Raw, WWE Champion John Cena successfully defended his title by defeating Chris Jericho in a "You're Fired!" match. Eric Bischoff promptly fired Jericho, and ordered that he be taken from the arena by security. Jericho was not truly fired, however, as his release was a mutual arrangement. The match had been conceived to cover for Jericho's departure from the company, and he eventually returned to the WWE on the November 19, 2007 edition of Raw after an absence of just over two years, remaining with the company until his contract expired in September 2010 and then returned once more in 2012.

On the December 6, 2007 episode of TNA Impact!, Christopher Daniels was fired in the Feast or Fired match and due to the stipulations it was revealed that Daniels' briefcase contained the pink slip, immediately causing him to be released from TNA. He reappeared on January 24, 2008 under the guise of Curry Man, a masked character he has used in New Japan Pro Wrestling. He was then fired under this name in another Feast or Fired Match. He then returned to TNA in 2009 reverting to Christopher Daniels, and was announced as just "Daniels" until his release in 2010.

In April 2001, Vince McMahon announced that The Rock was indefinitely suspended. This was a cover story to give The Rock time off to film The Scorpion King. The Rock returned on the July 30, 2001 episode of Raw to declare that he was taking the WWF's side in their feud with the WCW/ECW Alliance. In 2012, Chris Jericho was fired on Raw. This was used by Chris Jericho to tour with Fozzy, his band, for the remainder of the year.

Before Money In The Bank 2016, WWE knew of Roman Reigns' violation of wellness policy, so they have scripted Reigns to lose WWE Heavyweight Championship to Seth Rollins, who in turn loses the title to Dean Ambrose by cashing in the Money In The Bank briefcase he won earlier that night.[8]

Breaking kayfabe

There have been several examples of breaking kayfabe throughout wrestling history, although exactly what constitutes "breaking" is not clearly defined. It is rare for kayfabe to be dispensed with totally and the events acknowledged as scripted. Often the "break" may be implied or through an allusion (for example calling a wrestler by his/her real name) and standards tend to vary as to what is a break. In the WWF during and after the Attitude Era, the line between kayfabe and reality was often blurred.

With the growth of the industry and its exposure on the Internet and DVD and videos, kayfabe may be broken more regularly. Whereas in the past it was extremely rare for a wrestler or other involved person to recognize the scripted nature of events even in outside press or media, WWE DVDs and WWE.com routinely give news and acknowledge real life. In the case of the former, it has ostensible adversaries and allies talking about each other, and the angles and storylines they worked and their opinions on them. On WWE.com, real life news is often given which may contradict storylines.

Prior to the Attitude Era and the advent of the Internet, publications such as WWF Magazine, and television programs broke kayfabe only to acknowledge major real-life events involving current or retired wrestlers, such as a death (for instance, the death of Ernie Roth, who was billed as "The Grand Wizard of Wrestling"), divorce (e.g., Randy "Macho Man" Savage and Miss Elizabeth) or life-threatening accident (such as the 1990 parasailing accident that seriously injured Brutus "The Barber" Beefcake), especially if said event received mass mainstream coverage. In addition, when WWF top officials and employees were facing allegations of anabolic steroid abuse and sexual harassment during the early 1990s, Vince McMahon responded via a series of videotaped comments defending his company and employees, and several full-page advertisements rebutting the allegations appeared in WWF Magazine.

Kayfabe has been broken many times, though it may not always be apparent to fans as seen below. The following is a list of some of the more notable examples.

Andy Kaufman, Inter-Gender Wrestling Champion of the World

Main article: I'm from Hollywood

Actor and comedian Andy Kaufman has become known in the years following his death for his lifelong obsession with professional wrestling. In what would sound more familiar when several modern-day wrestlers spoke of being in the audience for the Don Muraco versus Jimmy Snuka cage match as a life-changing event, Kaufman claimed to have been in attendance at Madison Square Garden twenty years prior when Bruno Sammartino defeated Buddy Rogers for the WWWF championship (itself possibly kayfabe, as Kaufman was a teenager and wrestling events at the time were subject to a curfew). Too small to be a wrestler[9] and too successful in his career for any promoter to afford his services as a manager, Kaufman nonetheless spent years looking for a way to be involved in the business.

Kaufman developed a bit for his standup routine of being the "Inter-Gender Wrestling Champion of the World," challenging females from the audience. It has been reported multiple times over the years that Kaufman created this bit with the intention of shopping it to wrestling promoters as a storyline, and that he was turned down by numerous promoters, most famously by Vincent J. McMahon. He finally found a willing promoter in Jerry Jarrett, whose flagship arena the Mid-South Coliseum was considerably larger than most other venues in the United States which ran weekly wrestling shows, and therefore had a need to create enough interest to sell tickets. Kaufman appeared briefly in the promotion in the spring of 1982 to challenge Jerry Lawler, followed by a famous joint appearance with Lawler on Late Night with David Letterman and other appearances throughout the following year.

During this same time period, Kaufman also worked with Freddie Blassie, whose ability to maintain kayfabe in public was so strong, it more resembled an obliviousness to reality at times. Kaufman and Blassie filmed the movie My Breakfast with Blassie, in which both men performed in character. Kaufman and Blassie appeared together on the February 23, 1983 episode of Letterman's show to promote the movie. This appearance, which was also performed in character, culminated with Blassie proclaiming that he was now Kaufman's (kayfabe) manager and physically pushing Kaufman towards the band stage to perform "Jambalaya". Letterman, in the early years of Late Night, featured both professional wrestlers and ordinary people as guests, which in both cases was rare on network television. At one point during the appearance, Letterman and Blassie were discussing the latter's wrestling career, and Letterman frequently goaded his other guest (the ordinary person) to denounce Blassie's claims, albeit with the hint that it was being done tongue-in-cheek. The studio audience erupted in laughter when Blassie, in discussing being Kaufman's manager, stated that Kaufman was a talent of the caliber of Big John Studd and Crippler Stevens.

A decade and a half after Kaufman's death, Lawler starred as himself in Man on the Moon, a film that, in part, portrays the kayfabe feud between the pair. The movie shows highlights from the work and then reveals that Kaufman and Lawler were friends. Kaufman was only an amateur wrestler, and his initial attempts to enter the pro wrestling business were met with scorn by promoters, many of whom viewed Kaufman as someone who was eager to use his celebrity to expose the business once he was given an entry. His work with wrestlers demonstrated that he was a quick study of kayfabe. His devotion to the kayfabe would last his whole life, eventually affecting his reputation with fans of his acting and comic careers.[10]

The Von Erichs

Main article: Von Erich family

Jack Adkisson, better known as Fritz Von Erich, and his sons provided decades worth of examples, discussion and debate of which would become more of a focal point of World Class Championship Wrestling during its decline in the mid to late 1980s than any of its matches or storylines. The examples begin with Fritz himself. Adkisson, who had been a football star at Southern Methodist University, began wrestling in Texas under his real name. He then spent years touring North America as Fritz Von Erich, utilizing a Nazi gimmick. Adkisson later returned to Texas, retaining the Von Erich name and aspects of the Nazi gimmick while promoting himself as a conquering local hero. The 1984 death of son David Von Erich, which was announced as due to enteritis but continues to be highly disputed to this day, provided much fodder for discussion as business slowly dwindled in World Class following the conclusion of the Von Erich vs. Freebird feud. The most minor of contradictions in story would be seized upon by critics, most notably by Dave Meltzer, who lived in Denton, Texas, at the time of David's death and originally reported the death in his Wrestling Observer Newsletter as due to enteritis.

The most egregious examples would actually follow David's death. During his years away from Texas, Jack Adkisson was part of a "brother tag team" (see above) with Waldo Von Erich, who was actually Canadian. As his sons began self-destructing, Fritz had a spot to fill in the roster, so he introduced Lance Von Erich, the son of Waldo. The problem was that in real life, Lance was Kevin Vaughn, a native of the Dallas area who was well-known locally under his real name as an athlete. Gary Hart, in an interview conducted for the WWE Home Video DVD release The Triumph and Tragedy of World Class Championship Wrestling, stated that he returned to the promotion as booker shortly afterward. When he entered the Dallas Sportatorium, fans began asking him about Kevin Vaughn, to which he responded that he did not know the name. Hart mentioned that these loyal fans were quick to point out that Kevin Vaughn was Lance Von Erich, and that "the Von Erichs lie," whereas they were content to believe in what they were seeing prior to this episode.

About a year after that, Fritz collapsed on the floor of Reunion Arena as he was leaving the ringside area. The suggestion that Fritz had faked a heart attack for cheap heat, with both kayfabe and real-life denials, would prove to be one of the final nails in the coffin for the promotion, which closed down within a year after this angle was shot.

Hogan/Savage/Miss Elizabeth

Sometimes a real life issue that a wrestler is involved in outside of kayfabe will be used as a storyline.

The end of The Mega Powers, the alliance between Hulk Hogan and Randy Savage, was inspired by real-life tension between the two men over Randy's manager (and real-life wife at the time) Miss Elizabeth.

1996 MSG Incident: "The Curtain Call"

In the 1996 MSG Incident, real-life friends Shawn Michaels, Hunter Hearst Hemsley, Diesel (Kevin Nash), and Razor Ramon (Scott Hall) broke kayfabe by embracing in the ring at the end of a match between Michaels and Nash. Nash and Hall were on their way to rival promotion World Championship Wrestling, and the embrace was a farewell gesture from Michaels and Triple H. Because of Nash and Hall's departure, and the fact that Michaels was champion at the time, Triple H was the only one reprimanded for the incident. He was relegated to working lower card matches and was booked to lose to Jake "The Snake" Roberts in the King of the Ring 1996 tournament, having previously been booked to win it. The event had a profound impact on the company overall in later years, as Stone Cold Steve Austin was booked in Triple H's place to win the tournament overall, thus setting the stage for Austin's rise to prominence in the late 1990s. Triple H was not punished for very long, as his push was only delayed a year and Triple H proceeded to win the next year's King of the Ring. By 2016, all but Triple H are in the WWE Hall of Fame.[11]

Montreal Screwjob

Main article: Montreal Screwjob

The most widely discussed example is the Montreal Screwjob, centered around a match in which then-WWF World Heavyweight Champion Bret Hart wrestled challenger Shawn Michaels for the championship at the Survivor Series in Montreal on November 9, 1997. Hart had previously signed a contract with rival World Championship Wrestling and still had three weeks after this match before his first appearance on WCW Monday Nitro. The agreed-upon finish was to have Hart retain the title that night and appear on Raw the following night to give up the championship. WWF head Vince McMahon had, months before, informed Hart that he could not financially guarantee the terms of his contract with Hart, encouraging him to make another deal if he was able to. As events transpired leading up to Survivor Series with Hart still champion and booked to remain champion following the event, McMahon feared that his championship would appear on his rival's television program.

During the match, Michaels put Hart in the sharpshooter, Hart's finisher. Referee Earl Hebner signaled that Hart submitted, even though he had not. At the same time, McMahon came to the ringside area and directed the ring crew to ring the bell and announce that Michaels had won the match. Hart, very upset, spat on McMahon and began trashing equipment around the ring, later punching McMahon in the dressing room. The incident was recreated over the years in various angles and storylines. Examples include a "screwing" of Mankind at the following year's Survivor Series and on the March 18, 2006 edition of Saturday Night's Main Event, where McMahon "screwed" Michaels in a match where Michaels faced his son Shane.

On the January 4, 2010 edition of Raw, Hart was the guest host for the episode. Hart and Michaels had made previous claims that they were ready to "bury the hatchet". The two met in the ring, admitted their faults and embraced in the ring. Despite Hart and McMahon mending their differences much earlier, a kayfabe feud began between the two when McMahon attacked Hart to end the program. This began the storyline that led to their match at WrestleMania XXVI.

Owen Hart's death

The accident that killed Owen Hart occurred on May 23, 1999 during the Over the Edge pay per view broadcast, but was not shown on screen (a pre-recorded video featuring Hart in character as the "Blue Blazer" was playing at the time of the accident) and, after Jim Ross indicated that something was amiss in the ring, the broadcast immediately cut to a pre-recorded interview with Hart. Afterward, Ross acknowledged to viewers that an accident had occurred and that Hart was being attended to, at one point assuring viewers "this was not a wrestling angle".

Special and tribute shows

See also: Ten-bell salute

In specials and tribute shows, kayfabe is often broken. In the tribute shows for Brian Pillman, Owen Hart, Eddie Guerrero, and Chris Benoit, many wrestlers and officials, including those who had kayfabe feuds with them, spoke in their honor. In Owen's case, the show has garnered a reputation as one of the most memorable Raw episodes in history, and has even been labeled "Raw is Owen" by several wrestling fans.

Kayfabe and real life came into serious conflict on June 25, 2007, when the actual death of Chris Benoit necessitated an appearance by WWE chairman Vince McMahon on his Raw program which aired that same day, even though the character of Mr. McMahon had been "killed" in an automobile explosion on a previous episode. The death angle was scrapped, as was the regularly scheduled Raw program. Instead, a tribute to Benoit was broadcast. However, the circumstances surrounding the deaths of Benoit and his family - not known at the time the June 25 Raw tribute was broadcast - led McMahon to also appear in person on the ECW broadcast the following night as well, acknowledging the change in Benoit's "status" and making the last mention of Benoit's name on WWE television. (WWE would take a step away from this policy when it launched the streaming WWE Network in 2014; Benoit matches air uncut on that outlet, but are preceded with a disclaimer.[12]) In his remarks on Raw, McMahon directly refers to "Mr. McMahon" as "my character" and refers in both Raw and ECW to the WWE wrestlers as "performers".

The ending of the Raw fifteenth anniversary special featured both heels and faces enjoying a beer together with many WWE alumni. When Ric Flair retired the night following WrestleMania XXIV on Raw, the entire roster of all three brands honored him, as did former wrestlers such as the Four Horsemen and Ricky Steamboat. Most notably, however, this included The Undertaker and Vince McMahon (who, as part of the storyline for Flair's retirement, made the stipulation in which if Flair lost a single match, he would be forced to retire).[13]

On the April 11, 2011, edition of Raw, after Edge announced his retirement due to a legitimate spinal condition, Edge, being a face superstar was seen shaking many heel superstars' hands, most notably Dolph Ziggler, whom Edge had recently been in a relatively long feud with. On the following edition of Smackdown he also announced that he and Kane were best of friends despite the two also recently being involved in a relatively long feud which included Edge causing Kane to push his father Paul Bearer off of a balcony to his (kayfabe) death.

On the September 16, 2011, edition of SmackDown, Edge returned to host the "Cutting Edge". Christian and Edge had formerly feuded about whether or not Edge cost Christian the World Heavyweight Championship at Summerslam and they appeared to reconcile backstage. Still, both appeared slightly uncomfortable to see each other. The feud started again after Christian got angry at Edge for not helping him to convince Teddy Long that he deserves one more match for the title. After the taping of the show, they hosted Edge Appreciation Night where Christian told Edge that he loves him and that whether or not he is in the WWE he will always be his biggest fan, breaking kayfabe. They embraced as lifelong friends.

Edge/Lita/Matt Hardy

In early 2005, Lita and Matt Hardy had been a legitimate couple for nearly six years, but around February of that year, Lita cheated on Hardy with fellow wrestler, Edge. Hardy made the situation public, and was fired from the WWE soon after, but the WWE hired Hardy back after only two months. They then put the real-life incident into a storyline with Edge and Lita facing Hardy. The WWE was forced to do this because by the time Hardy was fired, the majority of the fans were already aware of the incident and booed Lita (who was a face at the time). The live crowd would often chant "you screwed Matt" toward Lita and Edge.

Trump buys WWE Raw

On June 15, 2009, Vince McMahon announced on a special three-hour edition of WWE Monday Night Raw that he had sold the show to Donald Trump, who appeared on-screen to confirm it and declared he would be at the following commercial-free episode in person. However, it was not revealed that the "sale" to Trump was not an actual sale, but a kayfabe as part of the WWE's storyline. Executives for WWE and USA Network treated the "sale" as an actual sale, and it was picked up as a real event by many industry sources.[14] The day following the announcement, WWE's stock on the New York Stock Exchange fell, leading USA Network to admit that the "sale" was indeed nothing more than part of a storyline.[15][16]

Jerry Lawler's heart attack

On the September 10, 2012, edition of Raw, after competing in a tag team match with Randy Orton against CM Punk and Dolph Ziggler, Jerry Lawler collapsed (legitimately) at the announce table while Kane and Daniel Bryan competed against The Prime Time Players.[17][18] Updates were provided during the live broadcast by commentator Michael Cole, who broke kayfabe to make clear to viewers that Lawler's collapse and hospitalization was not a planned part of the show. As of the end of the broadcast at 23:15 EDT, it was announced that he had received CPR, but was breathing independently and reacting to stimulus. It was later confirmed on Dutch Mantell's Facebook page that Lawler had suffered a heart attack.[19]

Darren Young's coming out

Darren Young became the first openly gay WWE superstar during a non-kayfabe interview on August 15, 2013. This prompted several other on-air employees, both heel and face, to express their support for him.[20] Young, along with his Prime Time Players tag team partner Titus O'Neil, was a heel at the time; however, the surge of support he received for coming out soon led to them making a face turn.

Daniel Bryan's retirement

Despite being called a "B+ Player" in the storyline against Triple H, Stephanie McMahon and Vince McMahon, almost a year after what became of his final in-ring match, Daniel Bryan is forced into retirement for medical reasons (neck and concussion issues), they led the locker room to come out for his farewell party for Daniel Bryan and a guard of honour upon him leaving the ring with his wife, fellow wrestler, Brie Bella. It has become a tradition when a wrestler retires, or takes a long hiatus.[21] Wrestlers also made tribute videos reacting to his retirement, which included Charlotte, who has been feuding with Brie Bella in a storyline to make personal remarks against her, Bryan and Nikki Bella, who is recovering from her own neck surgery;[22][23][24] and The Miz, who was his first rival in the NXT as Bryan's demanding mentor[25][26] Brock Lesnar, as a heel, also showed respect for Bryan's decision to voluntarily retire.[27]

Brock Lesnar's UFC win

While Brock Lesnar's win at UFC 200 over Mark Hunt and face-like message for diversity inclusion after Black Lives Matter protest in Baton Rouge, seemed inconsequential in terms of storylines, many WWE Superstars acknowledged his win, including John Cena, Randy Orton (Lesnar's Summerslam opponent, who is making his own return from a legitimate shoulder injury), and Rusev, who acknowledged the fact that Lesnar represented Canada (his current residence) instead of USA.[28] The breaks are far less apparent after Lesnar was found to had been doping before and after the event.

Breaks that are apparent but unacknowledged

In the wrestling ring, as in theater, scripted events can easily go wrong. This can be due to wrestler error, equipment malfunction, or moves that result in unexpected injury. As in theater, these events are often covered up and not apparent to fans. On other occasions, mishaps have been brought into sharp relief due to the circumstances or actions of individuals, making the mistakes obvious.


Real life information being mentioned on the show

Storylines becoming real life

Some efforts to promote kayfabe have resulted in real-life consequences.

While working as a booker for WCW, Kevin Sullivan conceived an angle where Woman (Nancy Daus Sullivan, Sullivan's wife both on-screen and off), would leave his character for Chris Benoit's. Sullivan insisted that the two should travel together to preserve kayfabe for the general public. This resulted in Sullivan's wife legitimately leaving him for Benoit when the two developed a real-life romantic relationship during their time together. Nancy ultimately married Benoit in 2000.

Brian Pillman developed the "Loose Cannon" persona for himself while in WCW in 1996, conspiring with Vice President Eric Bischoff and booker Kevin Sullivan. Pillman's gimmick was based entirely on straddling the fine line of kayfabe. He would engage in on-camera actions that seemed to be unscripted, even to the other performers, and even breached kayfabe protocol when he addressed Sullivan on air as "bookerman". In the ultimate act of turning fiction into fact, Pillman convinced Sullivan and Bischoff that their storyline "firing" of him would seem more legitimate with the physical evidence of a release form. They faxed an actual WCW contract termination notice to him, complete with his name and the proper signatures, in order to preserve kayfabe. This allowed Pillman to leave WCW for the ECW and WWF.

When Triple H and Stephanie McMahon entered into a kayfabe marriage in late 1999, Triple H and McMahon started dating in real life, and continued to do so after their kayfabe marriage ended in 2002; the two would eventually marry in real life in 2003. The Catholic priest at the wedding, not aware of the workings of the wrestling business, initially refused to marry the two when he found out about the kayfabe wedding from a choir boy who was also a wrestling fan. Linda McMahon later had to explain to the priest the difference between WWE programming and real life, allowing the marriage to go through. Afterwards, the real-life marriage became an open secret on television before being acknowledged by Triple H in 2009.[38]

Carmella is the former valet and manager for Enzo Amore and Colin Cassady, but is also the real-life girlfriend of Cassady.

Alexa Bliss is the former manager of Buddy Murphy and Blake, and she is the real-life girlfriend of Murphy. When Alexa was drafted to SmackDown from NXT during the 2016 WWE draft, they were seen embracing each other.

See also


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Further reading

Look up kayfabe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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