Martinsburg, West Virginia
|Martinsburg, West Virginia|
|City of Martinsburg|
Location in Berkeley County and the state of West Virginia.
|Coordinates: 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W / 39.45917°N 77.96778°WCoordinates: 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W / 39.45917°N 77.96778°W|
|• Mayor||George Karos|
|• City||6.67 sq mi (17.28 km2)|
|• Land||6.65 sq mi (17.22 km2)|
|• Water||0.02 sq mi (0.05 km2)|
|Elevation||453 ft (138 m)|
|• Estimate (2014)||17,743|
|• Density||2,590.5/sq mi (1,000.2/km2)|
|• Metro||260,070 (US: 181th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1542824|
|Website||City of Martinsburg|
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, USA, in the state's Eastern Panhandle region. Its population was 17,227 at the 2010 census, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is one of the core cities in the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Martinsburg was a settlement founded on the upper Potomac River in 1778 during the American Revolutionary War by General Adam Stephen. He named it in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron.
Aspen Hall is a Georgian mansion, the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious, transportation, and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War; the Revolution, and the Civil War took place on the property. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time, Martinsburg and the larger territory were still part of Virginia.
According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856. He rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes for two days, to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, and the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold; he sought help to find them. He had a likeness of his wife, and locks of hair from each of them.
In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and later a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family; where her father Benjamin operated a general merchandise store. After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined Second Virginia Infantry, which was part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg. When a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, and Belle shot him. She was acquitted.
She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J.E.B. "Jeb" Stuart. Often she was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was arrested in Martinsburg by the Union Army and imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society. The historical society renovated the building and now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is also known as the Belle Boyd House.
Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the American Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia. The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868.
Martinsburg became a center of the railroad industry and its workers. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city and spread nationwide.
Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York.
The Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891; it grew to be the largest manufacturer of men's hosiery in the world.
Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913.
Over one thousand (1,039) men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925.
During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration (VA). The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans.
Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and through the 1950s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and later offshore.
Location and topography
Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W / 39.45917°N 77.96778°W (39.459207, −77.967814). As per MapQuest, Martinsburg is approximately 92 miles (148 km) driving distance northwest of Washington, D.C.. U.S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, and Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles (17.28 km2), of which 6.65 square miles (17.22 km2) is land and 0.02 square miles (0.05 km2) is water.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 17,227 people, 7,293 households, and 4,106 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,590.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,000.2/km2). There were 8,408 housing units at an average density of 1,264.4 per square mile (488.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 14.9% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.2% of the population.
There were 7,293 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.7% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.00.
The median age in the city was 37 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.3% were from 25 to 44; 26.3% were from 45 to 64; and 13.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 14,972 people, 6,684 households, and 3,689 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,977.4 people per square mile (1,149.2/km²). There were 7,432 housing units at an average density of 1,478.0/sq mi (570.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 83.90% White, 11.63% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.26% from other races, and 2.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.91% of the population.
There were 6,684 households out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,495, and the median income for a family was $36,954. Males had a median income of $29,697 versus $22,212 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,314. About 14.7% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 15.1% of those age 65 or over.
Martinsburg lies in the transition from a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) to a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold with a January daily mean temperature of 30.9 °F (−0.6 °C) and an average seasonal snowfall of 26.6 inches (68 cm), while summers are hot and humid with a July daily mean temperature of 74.7 °F (23.7 °C) and 27 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ readings annually. Precipitation is moderate, with winter being the driest period and May thru July the wettest. Extreme temperatures range from −18 °F (−28 °C) on January 21, 1994 up to 112 °F (44 °C) on July 11, 1936.
|Climate data for Martinsburg, West Virginia|
|Record high °F (°C)|| 80
|Average high °F (°C)|| 39.5
|Average low °F (°C)|| 22.3
|Record low °F (°C)|| −18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)|| 2.44
|Average snowfall inches (cm)|| 9.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.4||8.9||10.6||10.5||12.6||11.0||10.1||8.7||8.8||8.5||9.3||9.1||117.6|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||3.7||2.2||1.7||.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||.5||2.1||10.4|
|Source: NOAA (normals 1981−2010, extremes 1926−present)|
Major private employers in and around Martinsburg include Quad/Graphics, Ecolab, Orgill, Macy's, and FedEx. In February 2015, it was announced that Procter & Gamble plans to build a $500 million facility near the city.
The city also has numerous federal government employers, including the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), U.S. Coast Guard Operations Systems Center, U.S. Coast Guard National Maritime Center, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, and the Martinsburg VA Medical Center.
The Martinsburg IRS Facility, one of the two Enterprise Computing Centers of the Internal Revenue Service (the other is in Memphis, Tennessee), processes most of the country's electronically filed tax documents from businesses, and about one-third of electronically-filed tax returns.
- Berkeley Medical Center (formerly WVUH-East City Hospital and City Hospital)
- Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Martinsburg has one Shopping Mall
- Foxcroft Towne Center: 551,351 square feet (51,222.2 m2) with approximately 50 stores and anchored by Walmart, JCPenney, and The Bon-Ton. Opened in 1991. Previously known as Martinsburg Mall. Location: Foxcroft Avenue, Interstate 81 Exit 12 & 13.
Other retail centers/areas in Martinsburg include:
- The Commons Shopping Center: 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2) anchored by Target, Dick's Sporting Goods, Best Buy, TJ Maxx, Famous Footwear, Books A Million, Bed Bath and Beyond, Michael's, Petsmart and Five Below. Opened in 2009. Location: Retail Commons Parkway, Interstate 81 Exit 12.
- Old Courthouse Square: 201,350 square feet (18,706 m2) anchored by Food Lion and Super Shoes. Opened in 1987. Location: Edwin Miller Blvd.
- Apple Harvest Drive: K-Mart, Food Lion, Lowes, and Gabe's.
- North Queen Street: Weis Markets, Tractor Supply, Big Lots and Aaron's.
- Other shopping areas in the city are the Berkeley Plaza on Williamsport Pike and Martinsburg Plaza on Winchester Ave.
Elementary & Intermediate Schools
- Back Creek Valley Elementary
- Bedington Elementary
- Berkeley Heights Elementary
- Bunker Hill Elementary
- Burke Street Elementary
- Gerrardstown Elementary
- Hedgesville Elementary
- Inwood Elementary
- Marlowe Elementary
- Opequon Elementary
- Rosemont Elementary
- Spring Mills Elementary
- Tuscarora Elementary
- Valley View Elementary
- Winchester Avenue Elementary
- Mountain Ridge Intermediate
- Potomack Intermediate
- Orchard View Intermediate
- Mill Creek Intermediate
- Eagle School Intermediate
- Tomahawk Intermediate
- St. Joseph Catholic School
- North Middle
- South Middle
- Spring Mills Middle
- Hedgesville Middle
- Mountain Ridge Middle
- Musselman Middle
- Martinsburg High School
- Musselman High School
- Hedgesville High School
- Spring Mills High School
- Berkeley STEM Academy
Colleges and universities
- Blue Ridge Community and Technical College, Martinsburg
- James Rumsey Technical Institute, Martinsburg
- University of Charleston-Martinsburg
- Valley College of Technology, Martinsburg Campus
- Interstate 81
- U.S. Route 11
- West Virginia Route 9
- West Virginia Route 45
- West Virginia Route 51
- West Virginia Route 901
Amtrak provides service to Martinsburg. The city's passenger rail station is located downtown at 229 East Martin Street. MARC, Maryland's commuter rail system, operates trains on weekdays on its Brunswick Line which terminates in Martinsburg. Service is provided to Union Station in Washington, D.C.
Eastern Panhandle Transit Authority, known more popularly as "Pan Tran," operates bus routes in Martinsburg, surrounding Berkeley County, and neighboring Jefferson County, West Virginia.
Eastern WV Regional Airport, south of the city, handles general aviation. The closest airport with commercial air service is Hagerstown Regional Airport, that is about 25 miles (40 km) driving distance north. The closest international airport is Washington Dulles International Airport near D.C., which is about 60 miles (97 km) driving distance east.
- Martinsburg has one daily community newspaper, The Journal.
- Martinsburg has a bi-monthly magazine, Around the Panhandle magazine. www.aroundthepanhandle.com
- The city is home to WRNR/740 AM, WEPM/1340 AM, WICL/95.9 FM, WLTF/97.5 FM, and WVEP/88.9 FM radio stations.
- Martinsburg is home to W08EE-D Channel 8 (West Virginia Public Broadcasting) and (WWPX 60 (ION), all part of the Hagerstown sub-market that is further grouped under the Nielsen-designated Washington, D.C.-Hagerstown, Md. market, the ninth largest market in the nation.
- Martinsburg, WV was the setting of the X-Files episode "Small Potatoes" (Season 4, episode 20). However, the filming did not take place in the vicinity.
- Martinsburg is the setting for the reality television series Gypsy Sisters on TLC.
- Martinsburg is the town used for making the movie "Sweet Dreams", starring Jessica Lange and Ed Harris, portraying the life of First Lady of Country Music Legend "Pasty Cline" & Charlie Dick.
- Jacob M. Appel, (born 1973) author
- Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War
- Harold H. Bender (1882–1951), professor of philology at Princeton University
- Charles Boarman, physician
- Belle Boyd, Confederate spy in the American Civil War
- Scott Bullett, Former outfielder for the Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago Cubs
- Vicky Bullett, Olympic gold medalist in women's basketball
- Kathe Burkhart, artist, writer, feminist
- Summers Burkhart (1859–1932), attorney
- Harry Flood Byrd, Sr., United States Senator and Governor of Virginia
- Robert Lee Castleman, Grammy-winning singer/songwriter
- Danny Casolaro, committed suicide in Martinsburg
- Charles James Faulkner, United States Representative from Virginia
- Karl Hess, former D.C. insider turned Libertarian and appropriate technology activist, relocated to the Martinsburg area in the 1970s.
- Corey Hill, UFC fighter
- Joseph Howard Hodges, (1911-1985), Fifth Bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Wheeling
- Charles Porterfield Krauth (1823–1883), Lutheran theologian
- Shannon Larkin, drummer for the hard rock band Godsmack
- Edward F. McClain, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
- Walter Dean Myers, author
- John Quincy Adams Nadenbousch, colonel in Confederate States Army
- Mary Elizabeth Price, (1877–1965), impressionist painter
- Ronald Radosh, ex-New Left, ex-libertarian, now neoconservative author
- Absalom Willis Robertson, United States Senator from Virginia
- David Hunter Strother (aka Porte Crayon), artist
- Fulton Walker, former football player for the Miami Dolphins
- Garland Wilson (1909–1954), jazz pianist
- Hack Wilson, Hall of Fame baseball player
- Gypsy Sisters cast
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 201.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- "Procter & Gamble to bring $500M plant to Berkeley County". The Journal. February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- The Norwalk: Martinsburg's Motor Car
- Local Television Market Universe Estimates, Nielsen, 27 September 2008. Retrieved 02 November 2008.
- Phoning Home, University of South Carolina Press, 2014
- "Ensign Frazer, Hugh Carroll". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved 2014-August-23
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Martinsburg, West Virginia.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Martinsburg.|
- Martinsburg, West Virginia travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website
- Chamber of Commerce of Martinsburg and Berkeley County
- Martinsburg High School
- Martinsburg-Berkeley County Public Library
- WEPM Radio station, established 1946
- Eastern Panhandle Transit Authority "Pan Tran"
- Martinsburg, Virginia, During the Civil War in Encyclopedia Virginia